The vertical distance of the airplane above sea level—the actual altitude. It is often expressed as feet above mean sea level (MSL). Airport, terrain, and obstacle elevations on aeronautical charts are true altitudes.
A fuselage design made up of supporting structural members that resist deformation by applied loads. The truss-type fuselage is constructed of steel or aluminum tubing. Strength and rigidity is achieved by welding the tubing together into a series of triangular shapes, called trusses.
An aircraft engine which consists of an air compressor, a combustion section, and a turbine. Thrust is produced by increasing the velocity of the air flowing through the engine.
An air compressor driven by exhaust gases, which increases the pressure of the air going into the engine through the carburetor or fuel injection system.
A turbine engine which produces its thrust entirely by accelerating the air through the engine.
A turbine engine which drives a propeller through a reduction gearing arrangement. Most of the energy in the exhaust gases is converted into torque, rather than using its acceleration to drive the aircraft.
A rate gyro that senses both roll and yaw due to the gimbal being canted. Has largely replaced the turn-and-slip indicator in modern aircraft.
A flight instrument consisting of a rate gyro to indicate the rate of yaw and a curved glass inclinometer to indicate the relationship between gravity and centrifugal force. The turn-and-slip indicator indicates the relationship between angle of bank and rate of yaw. Also called a turn-and-bank indicator.
See Transcribed Weather Broadcast.