An outward force, that opposes centripetal force, resulting from the effect of inertia during a turn.
A center-seeking force directed inward toward the center of rotation created by the horizontal component of lift in turning flight.
See center of gravity
A tool that is used as a human factors aid in aviation safety. It is a systematic and sequential list of all operations that must be performed to properly accomplish a task.
An imaginary straight line drawn through an airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge.
Airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 NM of the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska; and designated international airspace beyond 12 NM of the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied.
Airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger numbers. The configuration of each Class B airspace is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers, and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. For all aircraft, an ATC clearance is required to operate in the area, and aircraft so cleared receive separation services within the airspace.
Airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports having an operational control tower, serviced by radar approach control, and having a certain number of IFR operations or passenger numbers. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.
Airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored, and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace is normally designed to contain the procedures.
Airspace that is not Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and is controlled airspace.
Airspace that is uncontrolled, except when associated with a temporary control tower, and has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace.
A configuration in which all flight control surfaces have been placed to create minimum drag. In most aircraft this means flaps and gear retracted.
Glossy, clear, or translucent ice formed by the relatively slow freezing of large, supercooled water droplets.
ATC permission for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace, for the purpose of providing separation between known aircraft.
Control tower position responsible for transmitting departure clearances to IFR flights.